Rating: 8,6/10 (5983 votes)This castle is a powerful medieval fortress built on the banks of the Tweed River on a steep cliff. It is located right on the border of England and Scotland, so this area has long been considered the most dangerous place in England. From 1136 to 1513, the Scottish troops captured the castle four times and failed to conquer it five times. The castle was founded in 1211 by the Bishop of Daren Ralnuf Flambard to protect his territories from the Scots and robbers. The original area of the castle was most likely the same as the modern one. In the courtyard there was a large stone hall, and the courtyard itself was surrounded by a moat and a palisade. The castle was first attacked by the Scots in 1136. This attack was successful, but the castle was returned to England almost immediately. In 1138 the Scots again conquered Norham, this time seriously destroying it. The castle again returned to the hands of the British and was seriously reconstructed. In 1170, during the reign of Bishop Hbu de Poisette, the Great Tower appears in the castle, which has survived to this day. Thanks to an improvement in 1215, the castle was able to withstand a 40-day siege. In 1291, the English king Edward I stayed in the castle for some time, at that time resolving disputes between the applicants to the throne of Scotland. After that, the War of Independence began, but Norham stayed away from the main actions. After that, the castle was captured and returned several more times. The Great Tower was completed in the 1400s, and in 1464 it was captured by the Counts of Warwick during the War of the Scarlet and White Rose. The siege of 1497 by the Scots severely damaged the castle, but Norham survived. It was repaired again, but in 1513 it was captured again with serious destruction. When the castle was returned, they began to seriously restore it, both eliminating the consequences of the capture and improving its defenses. In 1569 the garrison was expelled from the castle, and the building gradually began to decay. Only in 1923, when the castle fell into the hands of the state, it was slightly restored and opened to tourists.
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Topic: Norham Castle in the UK.