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The Roman Forum is a square located in the central part of Ancient Rome, surrounded by an architectural ensemble of buildings built in different eras. Previously, the Forum was the center of public life, which served as both a place of popular assembly and a meeting place for the Senate.
The Forum was built in the valley between the Palatine, Capitoline and Esquili Hills. In ancient times, it was a desolate swampy area. Until the VIII century BC. there was a cemetery here, and settlements were located on the nearby hills.
During the reign of Tarquinius the Ancient, large-scale works were carried out in the valley to build sewers and a Big Cesspool, which was connected to a drainage system. The construction of the Forum began immediately after the drainage of the area. It was planned to use one part of the Forum for public ceremonies, magistrates and elections, for oratorical stands, and in the other part to put benches.
During the republican period, the Forum became the religious, political and economic center of Rome. After the end of the Punic Wars, the city was redeveloped, the city forum also acquired a new look. New roads were laid to provide communication between the forum and the districts of the city.
In the northern part of the Forum there were houses of aristocrats, in the southern part of the – the house of the Scipios, on the site of which in the II century BC. the basilicas of Sempronia, Emilia and Portia were built. In these basilicas, trials and mass gatherings were held, which during the republican period were held more often in open areas.
In the II century BC. at the Roman forum, monuments and statues began to be erected in honor of representatives of the city's political elite. However, in 158 BC, due to the fact that the tradition has reached a large scale, all such monuments in the city were removed, and the construction has since been impossible without the approval of the Senate and the people.
The Forum reached its enormous size during the reign of Augustus, and became the center of the religious, social and business life of Rome. During that period, a large number of monuments were erected dedicated to the victory over Pompey and Antony, and to the deified reception of Julius Caesar – Father Augustus.
The Forum reached a new heyday during the reign of Constantine and Maxentius, during which the Basilica of Constantine and the Basilica of Romulus were built.
In the 8th century, the Forum lost its significance, the buildings were used for other purposes. Materials from ancient buildings were used to build houses and stables. Later the Forum was completely abandoned.
In the XIX – In the 20th century, a number of large-scale excavations were carried out at the Forum, which gave a lot to understand the history of Ancient Rome.
Together with other sites of Old Rome, the Roman Forum is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
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Topic: Roman Forum in Italy, Rome resort.