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The Suomenlinna Fortress (Sveaborg) is a system of bastion fortifications on the islands near the Finnish capital Helsinki.
The system of fortifications is built on the rocky islands of the Wolf Skerries, most of which are interconnected by bridges or braids. The southernmost of the islands - Kustaanmiekka - is connected with the neighboring Susisaari isthmus, along which a defensive wall runs. In the southern part of this island are the Royal Gate and bastions with guns. Susisaari Island is located exactly in the center of the bastion system: there are many bastions, several museums. Next is the island of Iso Mustasaari, the most built-up of all. It houses the fortress museum, church, main pier and puppet museum. In the northwest are the islands of Pikku Mustasaari and Lansi-Mustasaari.
The decision to build defensive fortifications on the Wolf Skerries was made at the end of the Russian-Swedish war of 1741-1743. Construction work began in 1746 and was completed by 1770.
In 1808, during the next Russian-Swedish war, the fortress was captured by the Russians after a short siege. A year later, Finland, within the framework of the Friedrichsgam Peace, became part of the Russian Empire and the fortress (then Sveaborg) became Russian. During the Crimean War, the fortress suffered significant damage as a result of bombing. After the war, the fortress was reconstructed, new fortifications and more modern weapons appeared.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the fortress housed docks, a station of the Russian navy, arsenals, barracks, a sailor school, seikhhaus, fresh water tanks, powder magazines, an Orthodox church, today, beyond recognition, rebuilt and other buildings. During the First World War, the bastion was even more fortified and extended to neighboring islands.
After Finland was declared an independent state, the fortress passed to it and was used to defend Helsinki. However, soon most of the fortifications were abandoned.
Today the Olavinlinna Fortress is one of the main attractions of Helsinki, included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. There are several museums on the islands, a light-security prison, and a naval academy. The entrance to the fortress is free, you only need to pay for visiting museums.
Of particular interest are always: the Suomenlinna Museum, where unique specimens of the pre-revolutionary artillery of Imperial Russia are kept; toy museum; Ehrensvard Museum, the military museum Manezh (museum of the Soviet-Finnish and World War II); submarine Vessico; customs museum. On the territory of the fortress there is a memorial plaque in honor of V.G.Belinsky, who was born here.
The fortress can be reached by ferry Helsinki - Suomenlinna.
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Topic: Fortress Suomenlinna (Sveaborg) in Finland, resort of Helsinki.