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The Cathedral of San Lorenzo is the seat of the local archbishop and one of the largest churches in Genoa.
Around the 5th or 6th centuries this site was located basilica dedicated to the city's bishop Saint Sir of Genoa. During recent archaeological excavations under the current temple, the foundations and walls of an old basilica from the time of Ancient Rome were discovered. Pre-Christian sarcophagi were also found, to which scientists suggested that a cemetery was located here earlier. Later on this site was erected the Church of the Twelve Apostles, which in turn replaced the new cathedral, built in honor of St. Lawrence, in the Romanesque style.
The construction of the cathedral began in 1115, which contributed to the urbanization of this part of Genoa. Since there were no other public squares in the city at that time, the square in front of the cathedral became the main public place in the city throughout the entire period of the Middle Ages. In 1118 the cathedral was consecrated by Pope Gelasius II. In 1133 the temple received archbishop's status.
In 1296, during the battles between the Ghibellines and the Guelphs, a massive fire broke out in the cathedral, which partially destroyed the building. Restoration work was soon carried out, during which the building was partially rebuilt. At the beginning of XIV The restoration of the facade was completed in the century, the inner colonnades were replaced, and empores were added. During the same period, the interior of the cathedral was decorated with frescoes on religious themes. The general style of the cathedral remained intact.
In XIV – In the 15th century, various chapels and altars were erected. In 1455 a covered gallery was added to the northeastern tower of the cathedral, in 1522 – exactly the same gallery appeared on the opposite tower.
In the middle of the 16th century, the architect Galeanzo Alessi began to reconstruct the cathedral, who managed to complete only the side chapels, nave, apse and dome. The work on the cathedral was completed only at the end of the 17th century. In 1894-1900, its medieval parts, as well as the dome, were restored.
In 1941, a British warship mistakenly fired an armor-piercing round that pierced the southeast corner of the temple. This shell is still kept inside the cathedral.
Today the cathedral houses the Treasure Museum, which displays a large collection of silver jewelry made in IX – XX centuries. The most significant exhibit of the museum is the Sacred Chalice, which was brought by Guglielmo Embriaco. It is believed that Jesus used the Cup during the Last Supper.
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Topic: Cathedral of San Lorenzo in Italy, Genoa resort.