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Shipka Pass or Shipka is a mountain pass across the Balkans, located at an altitude of 1 185 meters. The pass got its name in honor of the village located in the valley of the Tunji River, at the southern foot of the ridge. Today, a highway connecting the cities of Gabrovo and Kazanlak passes through the pass.
The pass was first mentioned in historical records dating back to 335 BC. At that time, Alexander the Great passed through the pass with his army before the battle with the tribals.
In 279-78 BC. the Celtic tribe of Galatians passed through Shipka, later establishing their state in Thrace in the Kazanlak depression.
In the 1st-4th centuries during the period of the Roman Empire, the strategic and economic importance of the pass especially increased. At that time, the Big and Small Roman roads passed through the pass.
In the 14th century, after the Ottomans conquered Bulgaria, the villages of Shipka and Gabrovo were turned into garrison settlements to guard the pass.
In the 18th century, the village Shipka was the main point for the exchange of goods between South and North Bulgaria.
It was here that one of the great battles of the Russo-Turkish War took place. For the Russian army, the pass was of the most important military-strategic importance, as it opened up a short route from Northern Bulgaria to Adrianople and Plovdiv. In 1877, the pass was occupied by Turkish forces, but the Russian garrison was able to capture Shipka. In response, Shipka was attacked by the Turkish general Suleiman Pasha. For a long time, the Russian forces were on the defensive. After the surrender of the Turks at the end of 1877, the Russian army again launched an offensive and at the beginning of 1878 the Turks surrendered.
Today, at the peak of Shipka, one can observe the `` Monument of Freedom '', which is a crypt where the remains of Bulgarian volunteers and Russian soldiers who died defending the pass are kept ... The memorial was built in 1926-34.
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Topic: Shipka Pass in Bulgaria.