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Pergamum is an ancient ancient city, as well as the former center of the state of the Attalid dynasty, located on the shores of Asia Minor. The city was founded by immigrants from mainland Greece in the 12th century BC. BC.
In 283-133 BC. e. the city became the capital of the Pergamon kingdom. Previously, the city was also one of the largest cultural and economic centers of the Hellenistic world.
According to ancient Greek mythology, the city was founded by the son of Andromache and Gehlen. The newborn was named Pergamum in honor of the Trojan Citadel – Pergamum. Immediately after the death of Gehlen, Andromache and his son moved to Asia Minor. Here a new city was founded by Pergamum, which received the name of its founder.
Also in the era of Attalids, the largest ancient library was collected in the city, ranked second after Alexandria. Legend has it that the invention of parchment was due to the ban on the export of papyrus. The library, numbering at one time about 200 thousand books, was subsequently seized and taken out by Mark Antony in Roman Egypt.
The mention of Pergamum can also be observed in the New Testament (Rev. 2:12): in the city, according to John the Evangelist, one of the seven churches of the Apocalypse was located.
Archaeological excavations were carried out here from 1878 to 1886, from 1900 to 1906, as well as subsequent years. The excavations were carried out by German archaeologists Ernst Curtius and Karl Human.
The Hellenistic city was surrounded by a powerful wall with the Eumenes Gate. The upper platforms housed the palaces of the Pergamon kings, the Traaneum and the arsenal. A little lower was the sanctuary of Athena Nicephorus, not far from which in the 3rd century BC. e. statues were installed.
One of the most famous buildings in the city is also the Asklepion temple, dedicated to the cult of Asclepius. From the 2nd century BC e. the temple was used as a hospital. Here the patients were prescribed diets, rest and walks in the fresh air.
Also interesting is the Pergamon Altar. which is a unique piece of Hellenistic art. The main theme of the relief images is the battle between the gods and giants.
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