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The Basilica of San Petronio is the city's main church dedicated to the patron saint of Bologna. The church is located in Piazza Maggiore. The Basilica is one of the largest churches in the world, the building is 132 meters long, wide – 60 meters, the height of the arch – 51 meters.
In the 5th century St. Petronio was the local bishop. The laying of the first stone in the foundation of the future Gothic cathedral took place in 1390. The building was designed by Antonio di Vicenzo. The construction of the church took place over several centuries. The facade was completed in 1393, after which construction began on the first chapels, which were completed in 1479. In 1514, the architect Arduino degli Arriguzzi proposed a new project for the building – according to his idea, it should have been in the form of a Latin cross. However, these plans were never implemented, as the project was vetoed by Pope Pius the Fourth himself.
For many years, the facade of the building remained unfinished. Many architects undertook its construction, but for various reasons the construction did not move. In the 15th century, the main entrance to the church was decorated with sculptures, and the side doors – depictions of episodes of the Old Testament, created by Jacopo della Quercia.
The basilica contains the fresco"Madonna with Saints" by Lorenzo Costa Jr., and the famous Pieta by Amico Aspertini. In the interior of the church, colored stained glass windows and painted walls also deserve special attention. The choirs of the church were created by Agostino de Marchi in the 15th century, and the monstrance is the creation of Jacop Barozzi da Vignola.
In the 17th century, two organs appeared in the church, which have been perfectly preserved to our time. In the left side aisle, there is a sundial dating from 1655. The watch was designed by Giovanni Domenico Cassini. This clock is the largest in the world, its length is 66.8 meters.
In 1954, the cathedral was solemnly consecrated. In 2000, the relics of St. Petronio were transferred here, which until that time were kept in the Basilica of Santo Stefano.
The Church of San Petronio has played an important role in the secular and church life not only of the city, but also of Europe. In the 19th century, Napoleon's sister was buried here – Eliza Bonaparte; in 2002 – arrested a group of people planning to organize a terrorist act in the church; in 2006 – Italian police seized Muslim terrorists who were planning to destroy the basilica, because the fresco located in the church, in their opinion, offends Islam.
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Topic: Basilica of San Petronio in Italy, resort of Bologna.